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iPhone J.D. - 18 hours 12 min ago

As noted by Dan Moren of Six Colors, Apple announced this week that it is having an event March 27 in Chicago.  The event will take place at a school, and Apple is calling it a Field Trip, so I imagine that Apple will be showing off some new technology that can be used in education.  But that doesn't mean that it might not also be useful for lawyers.  For example, my Apple Pencil is one of the most useful Apple products in my law practice, and as Serenity Caldwell of iMore notes, one rumor is that Apple could debut an Apple Pencil 2 at the event.  Other folks are predicting a new iPad will be announced, although that one seems a little more far-fetched to me.  At this point we can only speculate what will be announced, but if you were planning to buy an Apple product in the next 10 days, you might consider waiting until March 27 just in case Apple updates the product that you were thinking about buying.  And now, the news of note from the past week:

  • My favorite app for listening to podcasts is Overcast because it has so many great features.  This week the app added a new feature called Smart Resume, so that when you pause the podcast and then subsequently resume, the podcast backs up a few seconds and finds dead space between words and starts there.  Chicago attorney John Voorhees of MacStories describes the new feature.  It's so clever that you instantly wonder why podcast apps haven't always done this.
  • Massachusetts attorney Bob Amborgi reports that with Kentucky adding the requirement, there are now 30 states which have an ethical rule imposing a duty of technological competence on attorneys.
  • Oklahoma City attorney Jeff Taylor of the Droid Lawyer website explains how you can manage the information that Google has about you using the MyAccount feature.
  • Earlier this week, I discussed the recent ABA TECHSHOW conference, and one of the things that I mentioned was that the conference iPhone app was quite good.  New York attorney Nicole Black had the same thought, and write about how a good app can help a conference in this article for Above the Law.
  • When you exercise with your Apple Watch, the watch keeps track of your heart rate during the workout.  But what if you want to keep track of your heart rate when you are not working out?  Chance Miller of 9to5Mac describes the HeartMonitor app for Apple Watch which allows you to start a non-exercise session in which the watch will track your heart rate.
  • Many cities now have a bike sharing option that you can pay for.  Romain Dillet of TechCrunch notes that Apple Maps now has the ability to show you the nearest bike-sharing stations in many cities, including 24 U.S. cities and many other around the world.  In New Orleans where I live, we have a relatively new bike sharing service called Blue Bikes and I see people using the service all the time, but Apple Maps doesn't yet work with that service.
  • If you ever thought that you could redact a PDF document using the iOS built-in Markup feature, Benjamin Mayo of 9to5Mac explains why this is NOT an appropriate way to redact confidential information.
  • There is something funny about buying an accessory for an accessory, but that doesn't mean that it isn't useful.  Serenity Caldwell of iMore discusses some of the best accessories for the Apple Pencil.
  • There are lots of ways that you can manage multiple iPhones and other Apple products within a family.  This week, Apple unveiled a new Families page on its website to show you everything that you can do.
  • If you use iAnnotate by Branchfire to manage and annotate your PDF files, a post on the Branchfire blog describes the version 4.5 update which adds the ability to merge PDFs and other features.
  • If you want to add CarPlay to a car which doesn't have it, Zac Hall of 9to5Mac recommends the best aftermarket CarPlay receivers.
  • And finally, this week Apple unveiled a fun commercial called Unlock which shows off the power of using Face ID to unlock an iPhone X.  I like this one:

Categories: iPhone Web Sites

LDAP Authentication for IBM DS8000 Systems

IBM Redbooks Site - Fri, 03/16/2018 - 09:30
Redpaper, published: Fri, 16 Mar 2018

The IBM® DS8000® series includes the option to replace the locally based user ID and password authentication with a centralized directory-based approach.

Categories: Technology

Conversational Design

A list Apart development site - Thu, 03/15/2018 - 10:30

A note from the editors: We’re pleased to share an excerpt from Chapter 1 of Erika Hall’s new book, Conversational Design, available now from A Book Apart.

Texting is how we talk now. We talk by tapping tiny messages on touchscreens—we message using SMS via mobile data networks, or through apps like Facebook Messenger or WhatsApp.

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In 2015, the Pew Research Center found that 64% of American adults owned a smartphone of some kind, up from 35% in 2011. We still refer to these personal, pocket-sized computers as phones, but “Phone” is now just one of many communication apps we neglect in favor of texting. Texting is the most widely used mobile data service in America. And in the wider world, four billion people have mobile phones, so 4 billion people have access to SMS or other messaging apps. For some, dictating messages into a wristwatch offers an appealing alternative to placing a call.

The popularity of texting can be partially explained by the medium’s ability to offer the easy give-and-take of conversation without requiring continuous attention. Texting feels like direct human connection, made even more captivating by unpredictable lag and irregular breaks. Any typing is incidental because the experience of texting barely resembles “writing,” a term that carries associations of considered composition. In his TED talk, Columbia University linguist John McWhorter called texting “fingered conversation”—terminology I find awkward, but accurate. The physical act—typing—isn’t what defines the form or its conventions. Technology is breaking down our traditional categories of communication.

By the numbers, texting is the most compelling computer-human interaction going. When we text, we become immersed and forget our exchanges are computer-mediated at all. We can learn a lot about digital design from the inescapable draw of these bite-sized interactions, specifically the use of language.

What Texting Teaches Us

This is an interesting example of what makes computer-mediated interaction interesting. The reasons people are compelled to attend to their text messages—even at risk to their own health and safety—aren’t high-production values, so-called rich media, or the complexity of the feature set.

Texting, and other forms of social media, tap into something very primitive in the human brain. These systems offer always-available social connection. The brevity and unpredictability of the messages themselves triggers the release of dopamine that motivates seeking behavior and keeps people coming back for more. What makes interactions interesting may start on a screen, but the really interesting stuff happens in the mind. And language is a critical part of that. Our conscious minds are made of language, so it’s easy to perceive the messages you read not just as words but as the thoughts of another mingled with your own. Loneliness seems impossible with so many voices in your head.

With minimal visual embellishment, texts can deliver personality, pathos, humor, and narrative. This is apparent in “Texts from Dog,” which, as the title indicates, is a series of imagined text exchanges between a man and his dog. (Fig 1.1). With just a few words, and some considered capitalization, Joe Butcher (writing as October Jones) creates a vivid picture of the relationship between a neurotic canine and his weary owner.

Fig 1.1: “Texts from Dog” shows how lively a simple text exchange can be.

Using words is key to connecting with other humans online, just as it is in the so-called “real world.” Imbuing interfaces with the attributes of conversation can be powerful. I’m far from the first person to suggest this. However, as computers mediate more and more relationships, including customer relationships, anyone thinking about digital products and services is in a challenging place. We’re caught between tried-and-true past practices and the urge to adopt the “next big thing,” sometimes at the exclusion of all else.

Being intentionally conversational isn’t easy. This is especially true in business and at scale, such as in digital systems. Professional writers use different types of writing for different purposes, and each has rules that can be learned. The love of language is often fueled by a passion for rules — rules we received in the classroom and revisit in manuals of style, and rules that offer writers the comfort of being correct outside of any specific context. Also, there is the comfort of being finished with a piece of writing and moving on. Conversation, on the other hand, is a context-dependent social activity that implies a potentially terrifying immediacy.

Moving from the idea of publishing content to engaging in conversation can be uncomfortable for businesses and professional writers alike. There are no rules. There is no done. It all feels more personal. Using colloquial language, even in “simplifying” interactive experiences, can conflict with a desire to appear authoritative. Or the pendulum swings to the other extreme and a breezy style gets applied to a laborious process like a thin coat of paint.

As a material for design and an ingredient in interactions, words need to emerge from the content shed and be considered from the start.  The way humans use language—easily, joyfully, sometimes painfully—should anchor the foundation of all interactions with digital systems.

The way we use language and the way we socialize are what make us human; our past contains the key to what commands our attention in the present, and what will command it in the future. To understand how we came to be so perplexed by our most human quality, it’s worth taking a quick look at, oh!, the entire known history of communication technology.

The Mother Tongue

Accustomed to eyeballing type, we can forget language began in our mouths as a series of sounds, like the calls and growls of other animals. We’ll never know for sure how long we’ve been talking—speech itself leaves no trace—but we do know it’s been a mighty long time.

Archaeologist Natalie Thais Uomini and psychologist Georg Friedrich Meyer concluded that our ancestors began to develop language as early as 1.75 million years ago. Per the fossil record, modern humans emerged at least 190,000 years ago in the African savannah. Evidence of cave painting goes back 30,000 years (Fig 1.2).

Then, a mere 6,000 years ago, ancient Sumerian commodity traders grew tired of getting ripped off. Around 3200 BCE, one of them had the idea to track accounts by scratching wedges in wet clay tablets. Cuneiform was born.

So, don’t feel bad about procrastinating when you need to write—humanity put the whole thing off for a couple hundred thousand years! By a conservative estimate, we’ve had writing for about 4% of the time we’ve been human. Chatting is easy; writing is an arduous chore.

Prior to mechanical reproduction, literacy was limited to the elite by the time and cost of hand-copying manuscripts. It was the rise of printing that led to widespread literacy; mass distribution of text allowed information and revolutionary ideas to circulate across borders and class divisions. The sharp increase in literacy bolstered an emerging middle class. And the ability to record and share knowledge accelerated all other advances in technology: photography, radio, TV, computers, internet, and now the mobile web. And our talking speakers.

Fig 1.2: In hindsight, “literate culture” now seems like an annoying phase we had to go through so we could get to texting.

Every time our communication technology advances and changes, so does the surrounding culture—then it disrupts the power structure and upsets the people in charge. Catholic archbishops railed against mechanical movable type in the fifteenth century. Today, English teachers deplore texting emoji. Resistance is, as always, futile. OMG is now listed in the Oxford English Dictionary.

But while these developments have changed the world and how we relate to one another, they haven’t altered our deep oral core.

Orality, Say It with Me Orality knits persons into community. Walter Ong

Today, when we record everything in all media without much thought, it’s almost impossible to conceive of a world in which the sum of our culture existed only as thoughts.

Before literacy, words were ephemeral and all knowledge was social and communal. There was no “save” option and no intellectual property. The only way to sustain an idea was to share it, speaking aloud to another person in a way that made it easy for them to remember. This was orality—the first interface.

We can never know for certain what purely oral cultures were like. People without writing are terrible at keeping records. But we can examine oral traditions that persist for clues.

The oral formula

Reading and writing remained elite activities for centuries after their invention. In cultures without a writing system, oral characteristics persisted to help transmit poetry, history, law and other knowledge across generations.

The epic poems of Homer rely on meter, formulas, and repetition to aid memory:

Far as a man with his eyes sees into the mist of the distance Sitting aloft on a crag to gaze over the wine-dark seaway, Just so far were the loud-neighing steeds of the gods overleaping. Iliad, 5.770

Concrete images like rosy-fingered dawn, loud-neighing steeds, wine-dark seaway, and swift-footed Achilles served to aid the teller and to sear the story into the listener’s memory.

Biblical proverbs also encode wisdom in a memorable format:

As a dog returns to its vomit, so fools repeat their folly. Proverbs 26:11

That is vivid.

And a saying that originated in China hundreds of years ago can prove sufficiently durable to adorn a few hundred Etsy items:

A journey of a thousand miles begins with a single step. Tao Te Ching, Chapter 64, ascribed to Lao Tzu The labor of literature

Literacy created distance in time and space and decoupled shared knowledge from social interaction. Human thought escaped the existential present. The reader doesn’t need to be alive at the same time as the writer, let alone hanging out around the same fire pit or agora. 

Freed from the constraints of orality, thinkers explored new forms to preserve their thoughts. And what verbose and convoluted forms these could take:

The Reader will I doubt too soon discover that so large an interval of time was not spent in writing this discourse; the very length of it will convince him, that the writer had not time enough to make a shorter. George Tullie, An Answer to a Discourse Concerning the Celibacy of the Clergy, 1688

There’s no such thing as an oral semicolon. And George Tullie has no way of knowing anything about his future audience. He addresses himself to a generic reader he will never see, nor receive feedback from. Writing in this manner is terrific for precision, but not good at all for interaction.

Writing allowed literate people to become hermits and hoarders, able to record and consume knowledge in total solitude, invest authority in them, and defend ownership of them. Though much writing preserved the dullest of records, the small minority of language communities that made the leap to literacy also gained the ability to compose, revise, and perfect works of magnificent complexity, utility, and beauty.

The qualities of oral culture

In Orality and Literacy: The Technologizing of the Word, Walter Ong explored the “psychodynamics of orality,” which is, coincidentally, quite a mouthful.  Through his research, he found that the ability to preserve ideas in writing not only increased knowledge, it altered values and behavior. People who grow up and live in a community that has never known writing are different from literate people—they depend upon one another to preserve and share knowledge. This makes for a completely different, and much more intimate, relationship between ideas and communities.

Oral culture is immediate and social

In a society without writing, communication can happen only in the moment and face-to-face. It sounds like the introvert’s nightmare! Oral culture has several other hallmarks as well:

  • Spoken words are events that exist in time. It’s impossible to step back and examine a spoken word or phrase. While the speaker can try to repeat, there’s no way to capture or replay an utterance.
  • All knowledge is social, and lives in memory. Formulas and patterns are essential to transmitting and retaining knowledge. When the knowledge stops being interesting to the audience, it stops existing.
  • Individuals need to be present to exchange knowledge or communicate. All communication is participatory and immediate. The speaker can adjust the message to the context. Conversation, contention, and struggle help to retain this new knowledge.
  • The community owns knowledge, not individuals. Everyone draws on the same themes, so not only is originality not helpful, it’s nonsensical to claim an idea as your own.
  • There are no dictionaries or authoritative sources. The right use of a word is determined by how it’s being used right now.
Literate culture promotes authority and ownership

Printed books enabled mass-distribution and dispensed with handicraft of manuscripts, alienating readers from the source of the ideas, and from each other. (Ong pg. 100):

  • The printed text is an independent physical object. Ideas can be preserved as a thing, completely apart from the thinker.
  • Portable printed works enable individual consumption. The need and desire for private space accompanied the emergence of silent, solo reading.
  • Print creates a sense of private ownership of words. Plagiarism is possible.
  • Individual attribution is possible. The ability to identify a sole author increases the value of originality and creativity.
  • Print fosters a sense of closure. Once a work is printed, it is final and closed.

Print-based literacy ascended to a position of authority and cultural dominance, but it didn’t eliminate oral culture completely.

Technology brought us together again

All that studying allowed people to accumulate and share knowledge, speeding up the pace of technological change. And technology transformed communication in turn. It took less than 150 years to get from the telegraph to the World Wide Web. And with the web—a technology that requires literacy—Ong identified a return to the values of the earlier oral culture. He called this secondary orality. Then he died in 2003, before the rise of the mobile internet, when things really got interesting.

Secondary orality is:

  • Immediate. There is no necessary delay between the expression of an idea and its reception. Physical distance is meaningless.
  • Socially aware and group-minded. The number of people who can hear and see the same thing simultaneously is in the billions.
  • Conversational. This is in the sense of being both more interactive and less formal.
  • Collaborative. Communication invites and enables a response, which may then become part of the message.
  • Intertextual. The products of our culture reflect and influence one another.

Social, ephemeral, participatory, anti-authoritarian, and opposed to individual ownership of ideas—these qualities sound a lot like internet culture.

Wikipedia: Knowledge Talks

When someone mentions a genre of music you’re unfamiliar with—electroclash, say, or plainsong—what do you do to find out more? It’s quite possible you type the term into Google and end up on Wikipedia, the improbably successful, collaborative encyclopedia that would be absent without the internet.

According to Wikipedia, encyclopedias have existed for around two-thousand years. Wikipedia has existed since 2001, and it’s the fifth most-popular site on the web. Wikipedia is not a publication so much as a society that provides access to knowledge. A volunteer community of “Wikipedians” continuously adds to and improves millions of articles in over 200 languages. It’s a phenomenon manifesting all the values of secondary orality:

  • Anyone can contribute anonymously and anyone can modify the contributions of another.
  • The output is free.
  • The encyclopedia articles are not attributed to any sole creator. A single article might have 2 editors or 1,000.
  • Each article has an accompanying “talk” page where editors discuss potential improvements, and a “history” page that tracks all revisions. Heated arguments are not documented. They take place as revisions within documents.

Wikipedia is disruptive in the true Clayton Christensen sense. It’s created immense value and wrecked an existing business model. Traditional encyclopedias are publications governed by authority, and created by experts and fact checkers. A volunteer project collaboratively run by unpaid amateurs shows that conversation is more powerful than authority, and that human knowledge is immense and dynamic.

In an interview with The Guardian, a British librarian expressed some disdain about Wikipedia.

The main problem is the lack of authority. With printed publications, the publishers must ensure that their data are reliable, as their livelihood depends on it. But with something like this, all that goes out the window. Philip Bradley, “Who knows?”, The Guardian, October 26, 2004

Wikipedia is immediate, group-minded, conversational, collaborative, and intertextual— secondary orality in action—but it relies on traditionally published sources for its authority. After all, anything new that changes the world does so by fitting into the world. As we design for new methods of communication, we should remember that nothing is more valuable simply because it’s new; rather, technology is valuable when it brings us more of what’s already meaningful.

From Documents to Events

Pages and documents organize information in space. Space used to be more of a constraint back when we printed conversation out. Now that the internet has given us virtually infinite space, we need to mind how conversation moves through time. Thinking about serving the needs of people in an internet-based culture requires a shift from thinking about how information occupies space—documents—to how it occupies time—events.

Texting means that we’ve never been more lively (yet silent) in our communications. While we still have plenty of in-person interactions, it’s gotten easy to go without. We text grocery requests to our spouses. We click through a menu in a mobile app to summon dinner (the order may still arrive at the restaurant by fax, proving William Gibson’s maxim that the future is unevenly distributed). We exchange messages on Twitter and Facebook instead of visiting friends in person, or even while visiting friends in person. We work at home and Slack our colleagues.

We’re rapidly approaching a future where humans text other humans and only speak aloud to computers. A text-based interaction with a machine that’s standing in for a human should feel like a text-based interaction with a human. Words are a fundamental part of the experience, and they are part of the design. Words should be the basis for defining and creating the design.

We’re participating in a radical cultural transformation. The possibilities manifest in systems like Wikipedia that succeed in changing the world by using technology to connect people in a single collaborative effort. And even those of us creating the change suffer from some lag. The dominant educational and professional culture remains based in literary values. We’ve been rewarded for individual achievement rather than collaboration. We seek to “make our mark,” even when designing changeable systems too complex for any one person to claim authorship. We look for approval from an authority figure. Working in a social, interactive way should feel like the most natural thing in the world, but it will probably take some doing.

Literary writing—any writing that emerges from the culture and standards of literacy—is inherently not interactive. We need to approach the verbal design not as a literary work, but as a conversation. Designing human-centered interactive systems requires us to reflect on our deep-seated orientation around artifacts and ownership. We must alienate ourselves from a set of standards that no longer apply.

Most advice on “writing for the web” or “creating content” starts from the presumption that we are “writing,” just for a different medium. But when we approach communication as an assembly of pieces of content rather than an interaction, customers who might have been expecting a conversation end up feeling like they’ve been handed a manual instead.

Software is on a path to participating in our culture as a peer.  So, it should behave like a person—alive and present. It doesn’t matter how much so-called machine intelligence is under the hood—a perceptive set of programmatic responses, rather than a series of documents, can be enough if they have the qualities of conversation.

Interactive systems should evoke the best qualities of living human communities—active, social, simple, and present—not passive, isolated, complex, or closed off.

Life Beyond Literacy Indeed, language changes lives. It builds society, expresses our highest aspirations, our basest thoughts, our emotions and our philosophies of life. But all language is ultimately at the service of human interaction. Other components of language—things like grammar and stories—are secondary to conversation. Daniel L. Everett, How Language Began

Literacy has gotten us far. It’s gotten you this far in this book. So, it’s not surprising we’re attached to the idea. Writing has allowed us to create technologies that give us the ability to interact with one another across time and space, and have instantaneous access to knowledge in a way our ancestors would equate with magic. However, creating and exchanging documents, while powerful, is not a good model for lively interaction. Misplaced literate values can lead to misery—working alone and worrying too much about posterity.

So, it’s time to let go and live a little! We’re at an exciting moment. The computer screen that once stood for a page can offer a window into a continuous present that still remembers everything. Or, the screen might disappear completely.

Now we can start imagining, in an open-ended way, what constellation of connected devices any given person will have around them, and how we can deliver a meaningful, memorable experience on any one of them. We can step away from the screen and consider what set of inputs, outputs, events, and information add up to the best experience.

This is daunting for designers, sure, yet phenomenal for people. Thinking about human-computer interactions from a screen-based perspective was never truly human-centered from the start. The ideal interface is an interface that’s not noticeable at all—a world in which the distance from thought to action has collapsed and merely uttering a phrase can make it so.

We’re fast moving past “computer literacy.” It’s on us to ensure all systems speak human fluently.

Categories: Technology

IBM CICS Performance Series: CICS TS for z/OS V5 Performance Report

IBM Redbooks Site - Thu, 03/15/2018 - 09:30
Redbook, published: Thu, 15 Mar 2018

This IBM Redbooks® publication gives a broad understanding of several important concepts that are used when describing IBM CICS Transaction Server (TS) for IBM z/OS (CICS TS) performance.

Categories: Technology

DRI Appellate Advocacy Seminar

iPhone J.D. - Wed, 03/14/2018 - 01:05

I usually try to avoid attending conferences two weeks in a row, but appellate law is a significant part of my law practice, and there is a big appellate conference going on this week.  Thus, after attending ABA TECHSHOW last week, this week I'm attending the DRI Appellate Advocacy Seminar in Las Vegas. 

I know from the emails I receive that lots of appellate lawyers read iPhone J.D.  If you are attending the seminar this week, please look for me and say hello.  (This is what I look like.)  I'd especially love to learn about how you are using an iPad in your appellate practice, either during the briefing stage or for oral argument.  Or if you have advice on whether I should bet on black or red, that could be helpful too.

Categories: iPhone Web Sites

IBM FlashSystem V9000 Version 8.1 Product Guide

IBM Redbooks Site - Tue, 03/13/2018 - 09:30
Draft Redpaper, last updated: Tue, 13 Mar 2018

This IBM Redbooks® Product Guide describes IBM FlashSystem® V9000, which is a comprehensive all-flash enterprise storage solution that delivers the full capabilities of IBM FlashCore™ technology.

Categories: Technology

A DIY Web Accessibility Blueprint

A list Apart development site - Tue, 03/13/2018 - 09:18

The summer of 2017 marked a monumental victory for the millions of Americans living with a disability. On June 13th, a Southern District of Florida Judge ruled that Winn-Dixie’s inaccessible website violated Title III of the Americans with Disabilities Act. This case marks the first trial under the ADA, which was passed into law in 1990.

Despite spending more than $7 million to revamp its website in 2016, Winn-Dixie neglected to include design considerations for users with disabilities. Some of the features that were added include online prescription refills, digital coupons, rewards card integration, and a store locator function. However, it appears that inclusivity didn’t make the cut.

Because Winn-Dixie’s new website wasn’t developed to WCAG 2.0 standards, the new features it boasted were in effect only available to sighted, able-bodied users. When Florida resident Juan Carlos Gil, who is legally blind, visited the Winn-Dixie website to refill his prescriptions, he found it to be almost completely inaccessible using the same screen reader software he uses to access hundreds of other sites.

Juan stated in his original complaint that he “felt as if another door had been slammed in his face.” But Juan wasn’t alone. Intentionally or not, Winn-Dixie was denying an entire group of people access to their new website and, in turn, each of the time-saving features it had to offer.

What makes this case unique is that it marks the first time in history in which a public accommodations case went to trial, meaning the judge ruled the website to be a “place of a public accommodation” under the ADA and therefore subject to ADA regulations. Since there are no specific ADA regulations regarding the internet, Judge Scola decided the adoption of the Web Content Accessibility Guidelines (WCAG) 2.0 Level AA to be appropriate. (Thanks to the hard work of the Web Accessibility Initiative (WAI) at the W3C, WCAG 2.0 has found widespread adoption throughout the globe, either as law or policy.)

Learning to have empathy

Anyone with a product subscription service (think diapers, razors, or pet food) knows the feeling of gratitude that accompanies the delivery of a much needed product that arrives just in the nick of time. Imagine how much more grateful you’d be for this service if you, for whatever reason, were unable to drive and lived hours from the nearest store. It’s a service that would greatly improve your life. But now imagine that the service gets overhauled and redesigned in such a way that it is only usable by people who own cars. You’d probably be pretty upset.

This subscription service example is hypothetical, yet in the United States, despite federal web accessibility requirements instituted to protect the rights of disabled Americans, this sort of discrimination happens frequently. In fact, anyone assuming the Winn-Dixie case was an isolated incident would be wrong. Web accessibility lawsuits are rising in number. The increase from 2015 to 2016 was 37%. While some of these may be what’s known as “drive-by lawsuits,” many of them represent plaintiffs like Juan Gil who simply want equal rights. Scott Dinin, Juan’s attorney, explained, “We’re not suing for damages. We’re only suing them to follow the laws that have been in this nation for twenty-seven years.”

For this reason and many others, now is the best time to take a proactive approach to web accessibility. In this article I’ll help you create a blueprint for getting your website up to snuff.

The accessibility blueprint

If you’ll be dealing with remediation, I won’t sugarcoat it: successfully meeting web accessibility standards is a big undertaking, one that is achieved only when every page of a site adheres to all the guidelines you are attempting to comply with. As I mentioned earlier, those guidelines are usually WCAG 2.0 Level AA, which means meeting every Level A and AA requirement. Tight deadlines, small budgets, and competing priorities may increase the stress that accompanies a web accessibility remediation project, but with a little planning and research, making a website accessible is both reasonable and achievable.

My intention is that you may use this article as a blueprint to guide you as you undertake a DIY accessibility remediation project. Before you begin, you’ll need to increase your accessibility know-how, familiarize yourself with the principles of universal design, and learn about the benefits of an accessible website. Then you may begin to evangelize the benefits of web accessibility to those you work with.

Have the conversation with leadership

Securing support from company leadership is imperative to the long-term success of your efforts. There are numerous ways to broach the subject of accessibility, but, sadly, in the world of business, substantiated claims top ethics and moral obligation. Therefore I’ve found one of the most effective ways to build a business case for web accessibility is to highlight the benefits.

Here are just a few to speak of:

  • Accessible websites are inherently more usable, and consequently they get more traffic. Additionally, better user experiences result in lower bounce rates, higher conversions, and less negative feedback, which in turn typically make accessible websites rank higher in search engines.
  • Like assistive technology, web crawlers (such as Googlebot) leverage HTML to get their information from websites, so a well marked-up, accessible website is easier to index, which makes it easier to find in search results.
  • There are a number of potential risks for not having an accessible website, one of which is accessibility lawsuits.
  • Small businesses in the US that improve the accessibility of their website may be eligible for a tax credit from the IRS.
Start the movement

If you can’t secure leadership backing right away, you can still form a grassroots accessibility movement within the company. Begin slowly and build momentum as you work to improve usability for all users. Though you may not have the authority to make company-wide changes, you can strategically and systematically lead the charge for web accessibility improvements.

My advice is to start small. For example, begin by pushing for site-wide improvements to color contrast ratios (which would help color-blind, low-vision, and aging users) or work on making the site keyboard accessible (which would help users with mobility impairments or broken touchpads, and people such as myself who prefer not using a mouse whenever possible). Incorporate user research and A/B testing into these updates, and document the results. Use the results to champion for more accessibility improvements.

Read and re-read the guidelines

Build your knowledge base as you go. Learning which laws, rules, or guidelines apply to you, and understanding them, is a prerequisite to writing an accessibility plan. Web accessibility guidelines vary throughout the world. There may be other guidelines that apply to you, and in some cases, additional rules, regulations, or mandates specific to your industry.

Not understanding which rules apply to you, not reading them in full, or not understanding what they mean can create huge problems down the road, including excessive rework once you learn you need to make changes.

Build a team

Before you can start remediating your website, you’ll need to assemble a team. The number of people will vary depending on the size of your organization and website. I previously worked for a very large company with a very large website, yet the accessibility team they assembled was small in comparison to the thousands of pages we were tasked to remediate. This team included a project manager, visual designers, user experience designers, front-end developers, content editors, a couple requirements folks, and a few QA testers. Most of these people had been pulled from their full-time roles and instructed to quickly become familiar with WCAG 2.0. To help you create your own accessibility team, I will explain in detail some of the top responsibilities of the key players:

  • Project manager is responsible for coordinating the entire remediation process. They will help run planning sessions, keep everyone on schedule, and report the progress being made. Working closely with the requirements people, their goal is to keep every part of this new machine running smoothly.
  • Visual designers will mainly address issues of color usage and text alternatives. In its present form, WCAG 2.0 contrast minimums only apply to text, however the much anticipated WCAG 2.1 update (due to be released in mid-2018) contains a new success criterion for Non-text Contrast, which covers contrast minimums of all interactive elements and “graphics required to understand the content.” Visual designers should also steer clear of design trends that ruin usability.
  • UX designers should be checking for consistent, logical navigation and reading order. They’ll need to test that pages are using heading tags appropriately (headings are for semantic structure, not for visual styling). They’ll be checking to see that page designs are structured to appear and operate in predictable ways.
  • Developers have the potential to make or break an accessible website because even the best designs will fail if implemented incorrectly. If your developers are unfamiliar with WAI-ARIA, accessible coding practices, or accessible JavaScript, then they have a few things to learn. Developers should think of themselves as designers because they play a very important role in designing an inclusive user experience. Luckily, Google offers a short, free Introduction to Web Accessibility course and, via Udacity, a free, advanced two-week accessibility course. Additionally, The A11Y Project is a one-stop shop loaded with free pattern libraries, checklists, and accessibility resources for front-end developers.
  • Editorial review the copy for verbosity. Avoid using phrases that will confuse people who aren’t native language speakers. Don’t “beat around the bush” (see what I did there?). Keep content simple, concise, and easy to understand. No writing degree? No worries. There are apps that can help you improve the clarity of your writing and that correct your grammar like a middle school English teacher. Score bonus points by making sure link text is understandable out of context. While this is a WCAG 2.0 Level AAA guideline, it’s also easily fixed and it greatly improves the user experience for individuals with varying learning and cognitive abilities.
  • Analysts work in tandem with editorial, design, UX, and QA. They coordinate the work being done by these groups and document the changes needed. As they work with these teams, they manage the action items and follow up on any outstanding tasks, questions, or requests. The analysts also deliver the requirements specifications to the developers. If the changes are numerous and complex, the developers may need the analysts to provide further clarification and to help them properly implement the changes as described in the specs.
  • QA will need to be trained to the same degree as the other accessibility specialists since they will be responsible for testing the changes that are being made and catching any issues that arise. They will need to learn how to navigate a website using only a keyboard and also by properly using a screen reader (ideally a variety of screen readers). I emphasized “properly” because while anyone can download NVDA or turn on VoiceOver, it takes another level of skill to understand the difference between “getting through a page” and “getting through a page with standard keyboard controls.” Having individuals with visual, auditory, or mobility impairments on the QA team can be a real advantage, as they are more familiar with assistive technology and can test in tandem with others. Additionally, there are a variety of automated accessibility testing tools you can use alongside manual testing. These tools typically catch only around 30% of common accessibility issues, so they do not replace ongoing human testing. But they can be extremely useful in helping QA learn when an update has negatively affected the accessibility of your website.
Start your engines!

Divide your task into pieces that make sense. You may wish to tackle all the global elements first, then work your way through the rest of the site, section by section. Keep in mind that every page must adhere to the accessibility standards you’re following for it to be deemed “accessible.” (This includes PDFs.)

Use what you’ve learned so far by way of accessibility videos, articles, and guidelines to perform an audit of your current site. While some manual testing may seem difficult at first, you’ll be happy to learn that some manual testing is very simple. Regardless of the testing being performed, keep in mind that it should always be done thoroughly and by considering a variety of users, including:

  • keyboard users;
  • blind users;
  • color-blind users;
  • low-vision users;
  • deaf and hard-of-hearing users;
  • users with learning disabilities and cognitive limitations;
  • mobility-impaired users;
  • users with speech disabilities;
  • and users with seizure disorders.
When you are in the weeds, document the patterns

As you get deep in the weeds of remediation, keep track of the patterns being used. Start a knowledge repository for elements and situations. Lock down the designs and colors, code each element to be accessible, and test these patterns across various platforms, browsers, screen readers, and devices. When you know the elements are bulletproof, save them in a pattern library that you can pull from later. Having a pattern library at your fingertips will improve consistency and compliance, and help you meet tight deadlines later on, especially when working in an agile environment. You’ll need to keep this online knowledge repository and pattern library up-to-date. It should be a living, breathing document.

Cross the finish line … and keep going!

Some people mistakenly believe accessibility is a set-it-and-forget-it solution. It isn’t. Accessibility is an ongoing challenge to continually improve the user experience the way any good UX practitioner does. This is why it’s crucial to get leadership on board. Once your site is fully accessible, you must begin working on the backlogs of continuous improvements. If you aren’t vigilant about accessibility, people making even small site updates can unknowingly strip the site of the accessibility features you worked so hard to put in place. You’d be surprised how quickly it can happen, so educate everyone you work with about the importance of accessibility. When everyone working on your site understands and evangelizes accessibility, your chances of protecting the accessibility of the site are much higher.

It’s about the experience, not the law

In December of 2017, Winn-Dixie appealed the case with blind patron Juan Carlo Gil. Their argument is that a website does not constitute a place of accommodation, and therefore, their case should have been dismissed. This case, and others, illustrate that the legality of web accessibility is still very much in flux. However, as web developers and designers, our motivation to build accessible websites should have nothing to do with the law and everything to do with the user experience.

Good accessibility is good UX. We should seek to create the best user experience for all. And we shouldn’t settle for simply meeting accessibility standards but rather strive to create an experience that delights users of all abilities.

Additional resources and articles

If you are ready to learn more about web accessibility standards and become the accessibility evangelist on your team, here are some additional resources that can help.

Resources Articles
Categories: Technology

Reflections on ABA TECHSHOW 2018

iPhone J.D. - Sun, 03/11/2018 - 21:31

Last week, I attended ABA TECHSHOW 2018.  For decades, this event held in Chicago every Spring has been the biggest and best event for learning more about legal technology — in other words, for about as long as legal technology has even been a thing.  Every TECHSHOW is different, and there were some big differences this year, most notably a new venue at the Chicago Hyatt Regency.  Debbie Foster and Tom Mighell were the co-chairs of TECHSHOW this year, and they and the rest of the planning board deserve lots of praise for making this transition work so well.  Pretty much every aspect of the venue was better this year.  The layout of the Expo Hall was particularly improved, with everything together in one huge space.  And it was nice having the conference rooms much closer to the Expo Hall so you could more easily go back-and-forth.

The iPhone app associated with the conference was also great this year.  It contained the full schedule and made it easy to create your own agenda of the events and sessions you want to attend.  You could see all program materials.  You could get information on speakers and attendees.  And there was a nice integrated social component with pictures and information, a fun way to see what people were doing without having to do a search on Twitter.  I wish that the app had been updated to accommodate the larger iPhone X screen, but otherwise, it was a great companion for the conference and made printed materials unnecessary.


My big complaint about the conference this year was the lack of mobile content in the sessions.  ABA TECHSHOW has a ton of sessions, with multiple tracks occurring simultaneously.  Even a cursory look at the Expo Floor would confirm what you already know — mobile technology is one of the hottest areas of legal technology, as it has been for many years.  And yet there has not been a mobile track at TECHSHOW since 2015.  This makes no sense to me.  There could have easily been a track devoted to just the use of the iPad in the practice of law, or there could have been an even broader track focused on iPads, iPhones, wearable devices, etc.

I raised this issue with co-chair Tom Mighell.  It's not like Tom doesn't get the importance of mobile technology; back in 2011, he authored a book on how lawyers can use iPads, he used to publish a website called iPad 4 Lawyers, and he and I have co-presented at TECHSHOW in the past on mobile technology topics.  Tom understands mobile technology.  Tom's response to me was that mobile technology could just be incorporated as a sub-topic of other sessions.  I agree that is good too, and I saw some of that myself.  For example, in a session focused on using Macs, Florida attorney Katie Floyd, California attorney David Sparks, and New Jersey attorney Victor Medina shared some great tips on using an iPhone and iPad in a law practice:

But there was only a single session which even mentioned mobile technology in its title, a (great) session by technology consultant Brett Burney and California attorney David Sparks called All in the Family:  Seamless Workflows From Mac to iOS:

There are so many more mobile-specific technology topics that could have been explored because so many things work differently (and often better) on an iPad and iPhone than a computer.  Moreover, I know that this is an area that lots of lawyers want to know more about.  I lost count of all of the attorneys who mentioned to me at the conference that the lack of sessions devoted to mobile technology was a curious omission this year.  Indeed, that is also the reason that it makes sense to have a Mac track at TECHSHOW (which was abandoned last year but brought back this year) — many attorneys use Macs, and things are different on a Mac.  I hope that the planners of TECHSHOW 2019 decide to "think different" on this topic, and either restore a full track focused on mobile technology, or have many more session topics throughout the conference with a specific iPad and/or iPhone focus.

The Expo Floor was particularly good this year, with lots of vendors showing off lots of great technology, including iPhone and iPad hardware and software, from the largest companies like Thomson Reuters to small startups.  I enjoyed learning about lots of products that could be useful for my own law firm, and I had a chance to learn about future directions for products that I already use.  Here is a short, two minute video that New Orleans attorney Ernie Svenson created which gives you a sense of all of the activity on the Expo Floor:

Adam Camras, Laurence Colletti and others from the Legal Talk Network were recording podcasts from the Expo Floor, which was fun to see.  Here is a picture from one session being recorded with the TECHSHOW co-Chairs Debbie Foster and Tom Mighell, along with St. Louis attorney Dennis Kennedy and Steve Best of Affinity Consulting:

Lit Software is probably the best publisher of iPad software for attorneys, and they had lots to share at TECHSHOW this year.  Not only did they preview some new features on apps like TrialPad and TranscriptPad, they also pre-announced an iPad app that lawyers will be able to use to collect all of the key date-based information in a case and create a timeline.  I really look forward to trying that one out when it is released later this year.  And I know that they have other useful apps in the lab for a future release.  Here is a picture of Ian O'Flaherty (founder of Lit Software), Tara Cheever (product manager) and Kyle Kvech (lead applications developer) at the booth.  You can tell that I took this picture first thing in the morning because most of the day this booth was packed:

I also enjoyed talking to John Kuntz, co-founder of Bellefield.  That company created iTimeKeep, an app that you can use to enter your time using an iPhone (or iPad) and which integrates with the time entry system that your firm is already using.  (My review.)  I cannot think of how many times I have communicated with a client on my iPhone, or some some other billable work away from my office.  In the past, I would sometimes forget to record that time, but with iTimeKeep on my iPad I can take just a few seconds and record it immediately.

It is always fun to walk around TECHSHOW and bump into people who you "know" from the Internet.  For example, I ran into lots of attorneys who have emailed me iPhone and iPad-related topics of interest over the years, and it was great to talk to them in person.  I also bumped into perhaps the most prolific person on Twitter when it comes to sharing links to legal technology articles (not to mention a frequent author herself) —  New York attorney Nicole Black, who now works for Mycase (@nikiblack on Twitter):

I can't attend TECHSHOW every year, and I missed last year.  But whenever I can attend, I'm always glad that I did.

Categories: iPhone Web Sites

In the news

iPhone J.D. - Sat, 03/10/2018 - 00:27

I just returned from ABA TECHSHOW in Chicago, and it was great to catch up with lots of iPhone J.D. readers while I was there.  I was disappointed by the content of the conference this year because there were so few sessions devoted to mobile devices like the iPhone and iPad, but that was offset somewhat by lots of folks sharing tips on using their iOS devices, and the Expo floor featured lots of companies showing off iOS apps.  I'll have more to say on that next week.  And now, the news of note from the past week:

Categories: iPhone Web Sites

wiki dev test

Lotus Notes wiki recently added info - Wed, 03/07/2018 - 16:01
Categories: Technology

IBM PowerAI: Deep Learning Unleashed on IBM Power Systems Servers

IBM Redbooks Site - Wed, 03/07/2018 - 08:30
Redbook, published: Wed, 7 Mar 2018

This IBM® Redbooks® publication is a guide about the IBM PowerAI Deep Learning solution.

Categories: Technology

We Write CSS Like We Did in the 90s, and Yes, It’s Silly

A list Apart development site - Tue, 03/06/2018 - 08:47

As web developers, we marvel at technology. We enjoy the many tools that help with our work: multipurpose editors, frameworks, libraries, polyfills and shims, content management systems, preprocessors, build and deployment tools, development consoles, production monitors—the list goes on.

Our delight in these tools is so strong that no one questions whether a small website actually requires any of them. Tool obesity is the new WYSIWYG—the web developers who can’t do without their frameworks and preprocessors are no better than our peers from the 1990s who couldn’t do without FrontPage or Dreamweaver. It is true that these tools have improved our lives as developers in many ways. At the same time, they have perhaps also prevented us from improving our basic skills.

I want to talk about one of those skills: the craft of writing CSS. Not of using CSS preprocessors or postprocessors, but of writing CSS itself. Why? Because CSS is second in importance only to HTML in web development, and because no one needs processors to build a site or app.

Most of all, I want to talk about this because when it comes to writing CSS, it often seems that we have learned nothing since the 1990s. We still write CSS the natural way, with no advances in sorting declarations or selectors and no improvements in writing DRY CSS.

Instead, many developers argue fiercely about each of these topics. Others simply dig in their heels and refuse to change. And a third cohort protests even the discussion of these topics.

I don’t care that developers do this. But I do care about our craft. And I care that we, as a profession, are ignoring simple ways to improve our work.

Let’s talk about this more after the code break.

Here’s unsorted, unoptimized CSS from Amazon in 2003.

.serif { font-family: times, serif; font-size: small; } .sans { font-family: verdana, arial, helvetica, sans-serif; font-size: small; } .small { font-family: verdana, arial, helvetica, sans-serif; font-size: x-small; } .h1 { font-family: verdana, arial, helvetica, sans-serif; color: #CC6600; font-size: small; } .h3color { font-family: verdana, arial, helvetica, sans-serif; color: #CC6600; font-size: x-small; } .tiny { font-family: verdana, arial, helvetica, sans-serif; font-size: xx-small; } .listprice { font-family: arial, verdana, sans-serif; text-decoration: line-through; font-size: x-small; } .price { font-family: verdana, arial, helvetica, sans-serif; color: #990000; font-size: x-small; } .attention { background-color: #FFFFD5; }

And here’s CSS from contemporary Amazon:

.a-box { display: block; border-radius: 4px; border: 1px #ddd solid; background-color: #fff; } .a-box .a-box-inner { border-radius: 4px; position: relative; padding: 14px 18px; } .a-box-thumbnail { display: inline-block; } .a-box-thumbnail .a-box-inner { padding: 0 !important; } .a-box-thumbnail .a-box-inner img { border-radius: 4px; } .a-box-title { overflow: hidden; } .a-box-title .a-box-inner { overflow: hidden; padding: 12px 18px 11px; background: #f0f0f0; }

Just as in 2003, the CSS is unsorted and unoptimized. Did we learn anything over the past 15 years? Is this really the best CSS we can write?

Let’s look at three areas where I believe we can easily improve the way we do our work: declaration sorting, selector sorting, and declaration repetition.

Declaration sorting

The 90s web developer, if he or she wrote CSS, wrote CSS as it occurred to them. Without sense or order—with no direction whatsoever. The same was true of last decade’s developer. The same is true of today’s developer, whether novice or expert.

.foo { font: arial, sans-serif; background: #abc; margin: 1em; text-align: center; letter-spacing: 1px; -x-yaddayadda: yes; }

The only difference between now and then: today’s expert developer uses eight variables, because “that’s how you do it” (even with one-pagers) and because at some point in their life they may need them. In twenty-something years of web development we have somehow not managed to make our CSS consistent and easier to work on by establishing the (or even a) common sense standard to sort declarations.

(If this sounds harsh, it’s because it’s true. Developers condemn selectors, shorthands, !important, and other useful aspects of CSS rather than concede that they don’t even know how to sort their declarations.)

In reality, the issue is dead simple: Declarations should be sorted alphabetically. Period.


For one, sorting makes collaborating easier.

Untrained developers can do it. Non-English speakers (such as this author) can do it. I wouldn’t be surprised to learn that even houseplants can do it.

For another reason, alphabetical sorting can be automated. What’s that? Yes, one can use or write little scripts (such as CSS Declaration Sorter) to sort declarations.

Given the ease of sorting, and its benefits, the current state of affairs borders on the ridiculous, making it tempting to ignore our peers who don’t sort declarations, and to ban from our lives those who argue that it’s easier—or even logical—not to sort alphabetically but instead to sort based on 1) box dimensions, 2) colors, 3) grid- or flexbox-iness, 4) mood, 5) what they ate for breakfast, or some equally random basis.

With this issue settled (if somewhat provocatively), on to our second problem from the 90s.

Selector sorting

The situation concerning selectors is quite similar. Almost since 1994, developers have written selectors and rules as they occurred to them. Perhaps they’ve moved them around (“Oh, that belongs with the nav”). Perhaps they’ve refactored their style sheets (“Oh, strange that site styles appear amidst notification styles”). But standardizing the order—no.

Let’s take a step back and assume that order does matter, not just for aesthetics as one might think, but for collaboration. As an example, think of the letters below as selectors. Which list would be easiest to work with?

c, b · a · a, b · c, d · d, c, a · e · a c · b · a, b · a · c, d · a, c, d · a · e a, b · a, c, d · a · b, c · c, d · e

The fact that one selector (a) was a duplicate that only got discovered and merged in the last row perhaps gives away my preference. But then, if you wanted to add d, e to the list, wouldn’t the order of the third row make placing the new selector easier than placing it in either of the first two rows?

This example gets at the two issues caused by not sorting selectors:

  • No one knows where to add new selectors, creating a black hole in the workflow.
  • There’s a higher chance of both selector repetition and duplication of rules with the same selectors.

Both problems get compounded in larger projects and larger teams. Both problems have haunted us since the 90s. Both problems get fixed by standardizing—through coding guidelines—how selectors should be ordered.

The answer in this case is not as trivial as sorting alphabetically (although we could play with the idea—the cognitive ease of alphabetical selector sorting may make it worth trying). But we can take a path similar to how the HTML spec roughly groups elements, so that we first define sections, and then grouping elements, text elements, etc. (That’s also the approach of at least one draft, the author’s.)

The point is that ideal selector sorting doesn’t just occur naturally and automatically. We can benefit from putting more thought into this problem.

Declaration repetition

Our third hangover from the 90s is that there is and has always been an insane amount of repetition in our style sheets. According to one analysis of more than 200 websites, a median of 66% of all declarations are redundant, and the repetition rate goes as high as 92%—meaning that, in this study at least, the typical website uses each declaration at least three times and some up to ten times.

As shown by a list of some sample sites I compiled, declaration repetition has indeed been bad from the start and has even increased slightly over the years.

Yes, there are reasons for repetition: notably for different target media (we may repeat ourselves for screen, print, or different viewport sizes) and, occasionally, for the cascade. That is why a repetition rate of 10–20% seems to be acceptable. But the degree of repetition we observe right now is not acceptable—it’s an unoptimized mess that goes mostly unnoticed.

What’s the solution here? One possibility is to use declarations just once. We’ve seen with a sample optimization of Yandex’s large-scale site that this can lead to slightly more unwieldy style sheets, but we also know that in many other cases it does make them smaller and more compact.

This approach of using declarations just once has at least three benefits:

  • It reduces repetition to a more acceptable amount.
  • It reduces the pseudo need for variables.
  • Excluding outliers like Yandex, it reduces file size and payload (10–20% according to my own experience—we looked at the effects years ago at Google).

No matter what practice we as a field come up with—whether to use declarations just once or follow a different path—the current level of “natural repetition” we face on sample websites is too high. We shouldn’t need to remind ourselves not to repeat ourselves if we repeat code up to nine times, and it’s getting outright pathetic—again excuse the strong language—if then we’re also the ones to scream for constants and variables and other features only because we’ve never stopped to question this 90s-style coding.

The unnatural, more modern way of writing CSS

Targeting these three areas would help us move to a more modern way of writing style sheets, one that has a straightforward but powerful way to sort declarations, includes a plan for ordering selectors, and minimizes declaration repetition.

In this article, we’ve outlined some options for us to adhere to this more modern way:

  • Sort declarations alphabetically.
  • Use an existing order system or standardize and follow a new selector order system.
  • Try to use declarations just once.
  • Get assistance through tools.

And yet there’s still great potential to improve in all of these areas. The potential, then, is what we should close with. While I’ve emphasized our “no changes since the 90s” way of writing CSS, and stressed the need for robust practices, we need more proposals, studies, and conversations around what practices are most beneficial. Beneficial in terms of writing better, more consistent CSS, but also in terms of balancing our sense of craft (our mastery of our profession) with a high degree of efficiency (automating when it’s appropriate). Striving to achieve this balance will help ensure that developers twenty years from now won’t have to write rants about hangovers from the 2010s.

Categories: Technology

Review: Prizmo Go -- get text from a piece of paper into your iPhone

iPhone J.D. - Mon, 03/05/2018 - 23:40

In my increasingly paperless law practice, most of the documents that I need are already in PDF or some other electronic format, so when I need to get some text out of a document, I can typically just select that text using my computer or iOS device.  But sometimes I find myself working with a paper document — perhaps a single sheet of paper, perhaps a magazine, book, etc. — and I need to get some text out of that document so that I can work with it.  If it is short enough I can just retype it manually, but that is a pain for longer text.  Prizmo Go, an app which was released in 2017, has as its single focus the task of getting text from a paper document into your iPhone (or iPad) so that you can work with it.  Use the app to take a picture of the document, the app does an OCR to read the text, and then the app gives you the text.  The app itself is free, but there are some in-app purchases, discussed below.  The developer gave me a one-month Premium Plan account at no cost (which normally costs $0.99) so that I could see all of the features.  The app works well and I can recommend it.


The developer of Prizmo Go is Creaceed, a company in Belgium that has been making iOS apps since 2008, the same year that the App Store opened.  Back in 2009, I reviewed Prizmo, an app which scans documents and creates PDFs, and that app is still around today.  So these folks have a ton of experience using the iPhone to digitize documents.

Taking a picture

To start using the app, the first step is to use the app to take a picture of some text in a document.  As you are pointing your iPhone at the document, the app will underline all words that it can recognize, so you can see if you need to adjust your iPhone to get it in a position where all of the text that you want is visible and understood.  This is a neat augmented reality-type feature that makes a lot of sense.

Recognizing the words and turning them into text

Once you press the button, Prizmo Go snaps the picture and shows you the picture at the top and the text at the bottom.

If you see errors, you can fix them.  For example, in the above scan, I can see that the word "to" isn't correctly recognized in the second line.  Just tap in the text field to fix the text, and you can even make the text portion bigger so that you can see more of the text at once.

If you don't need all of the words in the photo, use your finger to swipe across the image and select the text that you need, which is highlighted in blue.  (Non-selected text is just underlined.)

The app can recognize words in one of two ways.  You can use the free built-in OCR functions to have the app itself try to read the words.  Or, in the app settings, you can turn on Cloud OCR which sends the picture to a server and returns, almost instantly, even more accurate results.  You need to pay for the Cloud OCR service.  One way to do it is to purchase a premium plan for one month for $0.99 or one year for $7.99.  Or you can pay $0.99 for 100 uses or $4.99 for 1000 uses.  There is also a free 10-pack so that you can try it out.

Use the text

I suspect that most attorneys and other folks using this app will want to do something with the text once it is captured, such as copy-and-paste it into another app, an email, a note, etc.  To do so in Prizmo Go, you need to pay.  If you purchase that $1/month or $8/year premium pack, the ability to export is included.  Otherwise, you need to pay a $4.99 to turn on the export feature.

For most folks, this means that you have a choice in how you pay for this app.  You can spend $4.99 to enable export and perhaps also pay $0.99 for 100 uses of the Cloud OCR feature — or just skip the more accurate Cloud OCR feature and use the still pretty darn accurate built-in OCR.  Or you can pay $1/month or $8/year to have unlimited use of this app.  In other words, you get to choose whether you prefer the pay up front model or the subscription model for using this app.

Once the export feature is turned on, you can do something with the text, such as copy it to the clipboard, send it to an email message, etc.

Other languages

For many attorneys, the operations discussed above are all that you will need.  But if you find yourself needing to work with other languages, the app can handle that too.  Some languages are handled with the built-in OCR, others require the Cloud OCR package.  The Cloud OCR service can recognize languages automatically.

The app can recognize 22 languages and can translate to 59 languages.  In the following example, I scanned a legal decision from a French court, then I had Prizmo translate the text into English.

Other features

There are other features available in this app, although I don't think that they are features that I will need.  For example, the app can read text out loud, which could be useful if your vision is impaired.  (The app also has lots of voice over accessibility features, useful for folks with limited or no vision.)  The app can also detect certain types of data — such as email addresses, phone numbers, URLs, etc. — and you can act upon that data, such as calling a phone number.


Prizmo Go does its job very well.  If you ever need to take some words on paper and then get them into your iPhone or iPad (and from there, you might send them to your computer), Prizmo Go has you covered.  You can often do something similar by using an app which creates PDF documents and then does an OCR, but the Prizmo Go app is more efficient because it focuses on the task of getting you the text that you need as quickly as possible.

The in-app purchases are a little confusing at first, but I really like that the company gives you the choice.  You can either pay $5 to use the app to export text, plus pay for OCR whenever you need it in $1 or $5 chunks (or don't pay for Cloud OCR at all).  Or you can opt for the subscription model of $1/month or $8/year, which gives you access to every feature in the app.

Click here to get Prizmo Go (free): 

Categories: iPhone Web Sites

In the news

iPhone J.D. - Fri, 03/02/2018 - 01:38

I'm attending ABA TECHSHOW in Chicago next week.  If you will be there too, please say hello if you bump into me.  I love to meet iPhone J.D. readers and find out how you are using an iPhone or iPad in your law practice.  One place to see me is the Mac Power Users meetup on Wednesday night, which you should sign up for (it's free) if you will be in Chicago that night.  And if you see me on Thursday when I will be attending sessions and checking out the latest in legal technology on the EXPO floor, I'll have some iPhone J.D. logo Mobile Cloth screen cleaners with me.  They work great to keep your iPhone and iPad (and even your eyeglasses) clean, so please don't be bashful in asking me for one!  And now, the news of note from the past week:

  • Texas attorney Zach Herbert shows how you can use PDF Expert on a Mac to apply Bates numbers to a document and then sync that to an iPad.  The only iPad app I know of which can apply Bates numbers is DocReviewPad.  Let me know if you are aware of any others.
  • The Lit Software blog explains how Kansas City attorney Bert Braud uses TrialPad and TranscriptPad.
  • Joe Rossignol of MacRumors discusses some of the latest improvements to the Maps app, including improvements in South Carolina and lane guidance in many countries.  I've found lane guidance to be very helpful when I'm driving in a new area and using CarPlay.
  • I don't ski — I live in New Orleans so I barely even know what snow is — but if you do, you can now use your Apple Watch Series 3 for skiing and snowboarding activity.  Here is an article on the Apple newsroom website with additional details.  This is the first time that I have seen Apple add a new exercise/activity feature that requires the Series 3.
  • Tory Foulk of iMore reports that you can save $5 on movie tickets this weekend if you pay using Apple Pay through Fandango.
  • Nick Guy of Wirecutter recommends some of his favorite third-party Apple Watch bands.
  • Jim McDannald of Wirecutter recommends iPhone armbands and waistbands for running.
  • To celebrate Australia voting to legalize same-sex marriage, Apple unveiled some "shot on an iPhone" videos called First Dance.  Luke Dormehl of Cult of Mac collects them all on this page.
  • And finally, Apple also unveiled some new, short video ads to encourage folks to switch to an iPhone.  Peter Cao of 9to5Mac has collected all of them.  Here is the one called Safe:

Categories: iPhone Web Sites

Useful iOS settings -- inspired by Mac Power Users #419

iPhone J.D. - Wed, 02/28/2018 - 23:05

Earlier this week, I had to drive several hours to argue a summary judgment motion in a courthouse across the state.  Fortunately, I was able to listen to some good podcasts and music along the way.  I learned a lot listening to Episode 419 of the Mac Power Users podcast, hosted by Florida attorney Katie Floyd and California attorney David Sparks.  In that episode — "iOS Settings" — they discuss many useful things that you can configure in the Settings app on an iPhone or iPad.  The podcast mentioned one or two things I didn't know about, but it was just as useful to hear them discuss some settings that I did know about in the back of my brain but hadn't thought about much lately.  If you have about an hour and a half (or even less time if you speed up your podcasts using the Overcast app like I do) to learn about iPhone settings, this episode is a great one to listen to.

The episode inspired me to think about some of the parts of the Settings app that I access regularly.  Here is my list.  Hopefully you one or more of these will be new to you and useful to learn about.  But even if you already know about all of these, perhaps thinking about them again will remind you about how useful these settings can be.

1.    Pull down to search

Sometimes you know that there is something in the Settings app but you don't know where it is.  When you first open the app, use your finger to pull down on the screen, and you will reveal a search box at the top.  You can type something like "Restrictions" and the app will jump you write to the Restrictions page, even if you don't remember that it is tucked away under General.

2.    Family Sharing

My kids have hand-me-down iPhones from me and my wife, without active SIM cards.  I have Family Sharing configured so that when they go to purchase an app, I get an alert on my iPhone, and I need to approve the purchase.  Configure this by tapping your name at the top of the Settings app (just above Airplane Mode) -> Family Sharing -> [tap name of child] -> Ask to Buy.

3.    Airplane Mode

When I am having trouble getting a cellular connection, or when Wi-Fi isn't working right, the first thing I do is turn on Airplane Mode, wait about 10 seconds, and then turn it off again.  I'm amazed at how often that solves the problem for me.  And oh yes, Airplane Mode is also useful when I'm on an airplane.

4.    Forget This Network

If you find that your device is automatically connecting to a Wi-Fi network that you don't want to be using, go to Settings -> Wi-Fi -> [network name] - Forget This Network to stop your device from connecting automatically.  For example, if I connect to the Wi-Fi at a hotel, and then I return to the hotel months later, sometimes my iPhone tries to reconnect automatically but runs into problems.  If I forget the network, and then connect again from scratch, I can usually get things working again.

5.    Double-Tap your AirPods

If you own a pair of Apple's AirPods, you can change what happens when you double-tap on the left and right AirPod.  Go to Settings -> Bluetooth, then tap the info icon (an "i" in a circle) next to the entry for AirPods at a time when your AirPods are in your ears.  This bring you to a screen where you can control what happens when you double-tap.  I have mine set to play/pause wen I double-tap my right ear and to bring up Siri when i double-tap my left ear.  Other options are skipping to the next or previous tracks.

6.    Control Center

When you swipe up on most iPhones, or when you swipe down from the top right on an iPhone X, you bring up the Control Center.  This is a quick and easy way to access all sorts of controls.  You can turn on or off the items that show up in the Control Center by going to Settings -> Control Center -> Customize Controls.  Katie Floyd mentioned in the podcast that she likes to put an Apple TV Remote in her Control Center so that she can quickly control her Apple TV using her iPhone even if she cannot find the tiny and easy-to-misplace remote that comes with the Apple TV. 

7.    CarPlay icons

You can control which icons appear on which screen of your CarPlay screen by going to Settings -> General -> CarPlay -> [your car name].  I put all of the apps I use on my main screen, and move the ones that I never use (such as the built-in app for my Honda Accord) to the second screen.  And the apps that I use the most, like Now Playing and Overcast, are on the left side of the screen so that they are easier to reach from the driver's seat.

8.    Magnifying Glass

Whether I am reading the fine print in a contract or trying to read small type on a package, it is often useful to have a magnifying glass.  I have my iPhone set up so that if I triple-click the side button on my iPhone X (for earlier models, triple-click on the home button), the magnifier comes right up.  I do this in Settings -> General -> Accessibility -> Magnifier.  You can also put a Magnifier icon in the Control Center using the tip I mentioned above if you would rather access it that way.

9.    Where have I been?

Trying to remember the name of that restaurant you went to last week in Boston?  Or trying to figure out how long you were at a location such as a courthouse, to help you to do your time sheets?  Your iPhone keeps a log of many of the places that you visit, and how long you were there.  Sometimes it is useful for you to go back and see where you have been.  But whether you use this feature or not, you should know that it is there in case someone else gets access to your iPhone and you don't want them to know where you have been.

Go to Settings -> Privacy -> Location Services -> System Services [all the way at the bottom] -> Significant Locations.  I see that on my iPhone X, my phone checks my Face ID before going to the next screen, which is a nice privacy check.  On that next screen, when Significant Locations is turned on, you will see a list of many (although probably not all) of the cities that you have been to recently.  Tap a city to see specific locations with the city.  For example, right now I am seeing that I was at Lafayette Parish Courthouse earlier this week for that summary judgment hearing from 8:49 am to 10:38 am.  That time span includes the time that I was in my car across the street from the courthouse waiting for the building to open, and also includes the time I spent in my car sending an email to my client after the hearing to report that we won.  Thus, the time associated with a specific establishment may include some time when you were nearby, but these time estimates can still be useful whenever you need to recreate your day.


Your iPhone uses this log of significant locations for providing location-related information to some of the built-in apps on the iPhone.  Apple tells you in the Settings app that "Significant Locations are encrypted and cannot be read by Apple."  Nevertheless, if you find this feature to be more creepy than useful, feel free to turn off Significant Locations. 

10.    Mail previews

In my Mail app when I am looking at a list of messages, I prefer to just see the sender and the subject line, so that I can see even more messages on the screen at one time.  I know that others prefer to also see a preview of the beginning of the message.  You can adjust what you see in Settings -> Mail -> Preview [under Message List] and then select from None to 5 Lines.  Mine is set to None.

There are lots of other things that you can control in Settings -> Mail such as whether to organize your emails by thread, swipe options, etc.  Spend a little time poking around there to configure your Mail app in a way that makes the most sense for you.

Categories: iPhone Web Sites

Implementing the IBM Storwize V7000 with IBM Spectrum Virtualize V8.1

IBM Redbooks Site - Wed, 02/28/2018 - 08:30
Redbook, published: Wed, 28 Feb 2018

Continuing its commitment to developing and delivering industry-leading storage technologies, IBM® introduces the IBM Storwize® V7000 solution powered by IBM Spectrum™ Virtualize.

Categories: Technology

Owning the Role of the Front-End Developer

A list Apart development site - Tue, 02/27/2018 - 08:30

When I started working as a web developer in 2009, I spent most of my time crafting HTML/CSS layouts from design comps. My work was the final step of a linear process in which designers, clients, and other stakeholders made virtually all of the decisions.

Whether I was working for an agency or as a freelancer, there was no room for a developer’s input on client work other than when we were called to answer specific technical questions. Most of the time I would be asked to confirm whether it was possible to achieve a simple feature, such as adding a content slider or adapting an image loaded from a CMS.

In the ensuing years, as front-end development became increasingly challenging, developers’ skills began to evolve, leading to more frustration. Many organizations, including the ones I worked for, followed a traditional waterfall approach that kept us in the dark until the project was ready to be coded. Everything would fall into our laps, often behind schedule, with no room for us to add our two cents. Even though we were often highly esteemed by our teammates, there still wasn’t a chance for us to contribute to projects at the beginning of the process. Every time we shared an idea or flagged a problem, it was already too late.

Almost a decade later, we’ve come a long way as front-end developers. After years of putting in the hard work required to become better professionals and have a bigger impact on projects, many developers are now able to occupy a more fulfilling version of the role.

But there’s still work to be done: Unfortunately, some front-end developers with amazing skills are still limited to basic PSD-to-HTML work. Others find themselves in a better position within their team, but are still pushing for a more prominent role where their ideas can be fostered.

Although I’m proud to believe I’m part of the group that evolved with the role, I continue to fight for our seat at the table. I hope sharing my experience will help others fighting with me.

My road to earning a seat at the table

My role began to shift the day I watched an inspiring talk by Seth Godin, which helped me realize I had the power to start making changes to make my work more fulfilling. With his recommendation to demand responsibility whether you work for a boss or a client, Godin gave me the push I needed.

I wasn’t expecting to make any big leaps—just enough to feel like I was headed in the right direction.

Taking small steps within a small team

My first chance to test the waters was ideal. I had recently partnered with a small design studio and we were a team of five. Since I’d always been open about my soft spot for great design, it wasn’t hard to sell them on the idea of having me begin to get a bit more involved with the design process and start giving technical feedback before comps were presented to clients.

The results were surprisingly amazing and had a positive impact on everybody’s work. I started getting design hand-offs that I both approved of from a technical point of view and had a more personal connection with. For their part, the designers happily noticed that the websites we launched were more accurate representations of the comps they had handed off.

My next step was to get involved with every single project from day one. I started to tag along to initial client meetings, even before any contracts had been signed. I started flagging things that could turn the development phase into a nightmare; at the same time I was able to throw around some ideas about new technologies I’d been experimenting with.

After a few months, I started feeling that my skills were finally having an impact on my team’s projects. I was satisfied with my role within the team, but I knew it wouldn’t last forever. Eventually it was time for me to embark on a journey that would take me back to the classic role of the front-end developer, closer to the base of the waterfall.

Moving to the big stage

As my career started to take off, I found myself far away from that five-desk office where it had all started. I was now working with a much bigger team, and the challenges were quite different. At first I was amazed at how they were approaching the process: the whole team had a strong technical background, unlike any team I had ever worked with, which made collaboration very efficient. I had no complaints about the quality of the designs I was assigned to work with. In fact, during my first few months, I was constantly pushed out of my comfort zone, and my skills were challenged to the fullest.

After I started to feel more comfortable with my responsibilities, though, I soon found my next challenge: to help build a stronger connection between the design and development teams. Though we regularly collaborated to produce high-quality work, these teams didn’t always speak the same language. Luckily, the company was already making an effort to improve the conversation between creatives and developers, so I had all the support I needed.

As a development team, we had been shifting to modern JavaScript libraries that led us to work on our applications using a strictly component-based approach. But though we had slowly changed our mindset, we hadn’t changed the ways we collaborated with our creative colleagues. We had not properly shared our new vision; making that connection would become my new personal goal.

I was fascinated by Brad Frost’s “death to the waterfall” concept: the idea that UX, visual design, and development teams should work in parallel, allowing for a higher level of iteration during the project.

By pushing to progressively move toward a collaborative workflow, everyone on my team began to share more responsibilities and exchange more feedback throughout every project. Developers started to get involved in projects during the design phase, flagging any technical issues we could anticipate. Designers made sure they provided input and guidance after the projects started coming to life during development. Once we got the ball rolling, we quickly began seeing positive results and producing rewarding (and award-winning) work.

Even though it might sound like it was a smooth transition, it required a great amount of hard work and commitment from everybody on the team. Not only did we all want to produce better work but we also needed to be willing to take a big leap away from our comfort zones and our old processes.

How you can push for a seat at the table

In my experience, making real progress required a combination of sharpening my skills as a front-end developer and pushing the team to improve our processes.

What follows are more details about what worked for me—and could also work for you.

Making changes as a developer

Even though the real change in your role may depend on your organization, sometimes your individual actions can help jump-start the shift:

  • Speak up. In multidisciplinary teams, developers are known as highly analytical, critical, and logical, but not always the most communicative of the pack. I’ve seen many who quietly complain and claim to have better ideas on how things should be handled, but bottle up those thoughts and move on to a different job. After I started voicing my concerns, proposing new ideas, and seeing small changes within my team, I experienced an unexpected boost in my motivation and noticed others begin to see my role differently.
  • Always be aware of what the rest of the team is up to. One of the most common mistakes we tend to make is to focus only on our craft. To connect with our team and improve in our role, we need to understand our organization’s goals, our teammates’ skill sets, our customers, and basically every other aspect of our industry that we used to think wasn’t worth a developer’s time. Once I started having a better understanding of the design process, communication with my team started to improve. The same applied to designers who started learning more about the processes we use as front-end developers.
  • Keep core skills sharp. Today our responsibilities are broader and we’re constantly tasked with leading our teams into undiscovered technologies. As a front-end developer, it’s not uncommon to be required to research technologies like WebGL or VR, and introduce them to the rest of the team. We must stay current with the latest practices in our technical areas of focus. Our credibility is at stake every time our input is needed, so we must always strive to be the best developers in the business.
Rethinking practices within the company

In order to make the most of your role as a developer, you’ll have to persuade your organization to make key changes. This might be hard to achieve, since it tends to require taking all members of your team out of their comfort zones.

For me, what worked was long talks with my colleagues, including designers, management, and fellow developers. It’s hard for a manager to turn you down when you propose an idea to improve the quality of your work and only ask for small changes. Once the rest of the team is on board, you have to work hard and start implementing these changes to keep the ball rolling:

  • Involve developers in projects from the beginning. Many companies have high standards when it comes to hiring developers but don’t take full advantage of their talent. We tend to be logical thinkers, so it’s usually a good idea to involve developers in many aspects of the projects we work on. I often had to take the first step to be invited to project kickoffs. But once I started making an effort to provide valuable input, my team started automatically involving me and other developers during the creative phase of new projects.
  • Schedule team reviews. Problems frequently arise when teams present to clients without having looped in everyone working on the project. Once the client signs off on something, it can be risky to introduce new ideas, even if they add value. Developers, designers, and other key players must come together for team reviews before handing off any work. As a developer, sometimes you might need to raise your hand and invest some of your time to help your teammates review their work before they present it.
  • Get people to work together. Whenever possible, get people in the same room. We tend to rely on technology and push to communicate only by chat and email, but there is real value in face time. It’s always a good idea to have different teammates sit together, or at least in close enough proximity for regular in-person conversation, so they can share feedback more easily during projects. If your team works remotely, you have to look for alternatives to achieve the same effect. Occasional video chats and screen sharing can help teams share feedback and interact in real time.
  • Make time for education. Of all the teams I’ve worked on, those that foster a knowledge-sharing culture tend to work most efficiently. Simple and casual presentations among colleagues from different disciplines can be vital to creating a seamless variety of skills across the team. So it’s important to encourage members of the team to teach and learn from each other.

    When we made the decision to use only a component-based architecture, we prepared a simple presentation for the design team that gave them an overview of how we all would benefit from the change to our process. Shortly after, the team began delivering design comps that were aligned with our new approach.

It’s fair to say that the modern developer can’t simply hide behind a keyboard and expect the rest of the team to handle all of the important decisions that define our workflow. Our role requires us to go beyond code, share our ideas, and fight hard to improve the processes we’re involved in.

Categories: Technology

Implementing the IBM System Storage SAN Volume Controller with IBM Spectrum Virtualize V8.1

IBM Redbooks Site - Tue, 02/27/2018 - 08:30
Redbook, published: Tue, 27 Feb 2018

This IBM® Redbooks publication is a detailed technical guide to the IBM System Storage® SAN Volume Controller, which is powered by IBM Spectrum™ Virtualize V8.1.

Categories: Technology

In the news

iPhone J.D. - Fri, 02/23/2018 - 02:16

If you are wearing an Apple Watch and get into an accident, you can hold down the large button on the side of the watch for a few seconds and your watch will call 911 emergency services.  Apple explains how this feature works on its website.  You can do the same thing with an iPhone by holding the buttons on both sides, as Apple explains on this page.  Kylie Gilbert of Shape magazine reports that a woman in Pennsylvania used the feature after getting into a car accident, and she credits her Apple Watch for the saving her life and her son's life.  That's amazing.  Less amazing is that an Apple iPhone repair facility in Sacramento has been making around 20 accidental 911 calls a day, and — as you would expect — Apple is trying to fix that.  Hopefully you will never need to use this feature on your own Apple Watch or iPhone, but I encourage you to read the Apple pages on how these features work so that if the need arises, you can get emergency help.  And now, the recent news of note:

  • California attorney David Sparks compares and contrasts Overcast and the Apple Podcasts app, the two best ways to listen to podcasts on an iPhone.  As he notes, the Siri integration is the killer advantage of Apple's app, but I still prefer using Overcast.
  • Sparks also discusses Apple's new Close Your Rings page on its website, which encourages folks to get all of the activity circles on an Apple Watch every day.  Like David, I try to get all of my circles every day.  I was bummed to break a 183-day green circle streak during a recent vacation, but my red and blue circle streaks are still going strong, and keep me motivated to stay much more active than I would be otherwise.
  • In the latest episode of the Apps in Law Podcast, Brett Burney interviews California appellate attorney Robin Meadow to discuss Microsoft OneNote and Evernote.
  • The Lit Software blog explains how California attorney Tom Vidal uses TrialPad, TranscriptPad and DocReviewPad.
  • David Lumb of Engadget reports that Apple updated iOS and other platforms this week to fix a bug which could cause crashes if you received a single Indian-language character via a text message or some other apps. 
  • I've read lots of interviews of Apple CEO Tim Cook over the years, but this week Fast Company published an interview of Cook by Ben Lovejoy, and it is one of the best I've seen in a long time, with lots of detail and insight on how Cook sees Apple.
  • The iPad lacks native support for getting files on or off of a USB thumb drive, but Charlie Sorrel of Cult of Mac describes a workaround using Apple's Files app and a Sandisk iXpand Drive.
  • Michelle Martin of Reuters reports that director Steven Soderbergh used an iPhone to create a movie called Unsane, which will premiere at the Berlin film festival.
  • And finally, here is a fun video on YouTube showing what Siri might have looked like if it was introduced in the 1980s.  There are so many things I love about this video.  It was produced to look like the tech shows in the 1980s, and the content reminds me of using so many computers I used in the 1980s — an IBM-PC, a Mac, my Commodore 64, and even my Sinclair ZX81 which I equipped with a speech synthesizer.  Very clever.

Categories: iPhone Web Sites

IBM CICS and the Coupling Facility: Beyond the Basics

IBM Redbooks Site - Wed, 02/21/2018 - 08:30
Redbook, published: Wed, 21 Feb 2018

It's easy to look at the title of a book and think "that's old news" or "I already know all there is to know on that subject." But before you dismiss this publication, consider just how far the IBM® Parallel Sysplex® architecture has come.

Categories: Technology


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